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Any person who is connected to the internet can publicly verify and track the ownership of each token using block explorer software. The process of representing the land with a colored coin token is called smart property. It can help in land administration because it can provide an easy way to register and transfer a property and help prevent sale fraud. In countries where registration of land is difficult, a low cost certificate of ownership can be issued from a computer.

Private keys may be used to sign documents or transactions to ensure the person is the actual owner. In this way the Colored Coins tokens are a way of preventing sale fraud. Tokens on blockchain created to represent property are now custom to the same types of computer language and applications discussed in smart contracts.

Conditions such as the signing off of a notary, a county clerk or land administrator, and by the owner of property allow for smart contracts around the transfer of property and sale to be executed. Limitless conditions can be met to reduce fraud and for payments to be sent on time. Lenders and title companies can place funds into trustless escrow accounts only to be transferred if payment is received or the proper signatures are presented.

Hearn, M. The recording of land rights into digital systemsis not yet ubiquitous throughout most of the world. Even in Western countries storing digital files and insuring the data has not been corrupted or is a large problem. One feature the blockchain provides is a timestamped fingerprint of its data called a hash. To fight corruption and track changes as they occur to the documents, hashing can show the chain of custody and help determine whether or not information on the historic documents has been altered.

Unclear ownership, therefore, has several negative effects on both private citizens and the economy as a whole. Aside from the challenge to make people more aware of the benefits of registration is the second challenge of getting people comfortable with the registration process itself.

In many countries, registration involves several procedures, is time consuming, and often costs a fair amount of money. In , Transparency International noted that land is the second most corrupt sector in the world. This creates a problem of not only lack of awareness but also cumbersome procedures and potential bribes that ultimately discourage owners from registering.

The blockchain technology offers a way in which a hash can be created in the existing registry system to represent a title or deed associated with a particular land or property asset. This transaction is then both time-stamped and tamper-proof, making registration on the blockchain more secure than on any other database that currently exists.

A notary is a person authorized to perform specific legal functions, generally to guarantee and certify documents, transaction and contracts. The role of a notary varies considerably — in common law countries such as the US notary publics require very little training and have little power beyond attesting to a signature, and with 4. The number of notaries is often capped in civil law countries, resulting in an unnecessary bottleneck for land transactions — both in cost and time.

It is worth noting that in the World Bank Doing Business Report, one of the most effective reforms to improving the efficiency of land transactions was to make the use of notaries optional, particularly as in many cases their role is duplicative with the review conducted by the registrar. While in civil law countries, notaries have significantly more potential duties, the reality is that one of their primary tasks is certifying documents — a relatively straightforward and simple task that often places an unnecessarily high financial burden on those using a notarial service.

Given this relatively easy task combined with technological advances, the process of physically having to meet with someone in order to have them certify a document or any piece of information, could be up for reform. Utilizing the blockchain is one potential approach for reforming this process, with the blockchain serving as a sort of virtual notary service, authenticating when precisely a transaction occurred and the exact makeup of the contents of a document or contract.

In recent years, a number of organizations have popped up offering just this service — for example at Proofofexistence. Later if someone re-uploads the document, the system will recognize the file only if it is the exact same document. Anecdotal evidence from several countries suggests that even when women legally have equal rights to land and property, these rights are not socially followed or respected.

Other applications of multiparty transactions could involve property transactions involving several owners as in the case of acquiring a small business loans with the joint property used as a collateral. Due to its ability to store tamper-proof records on the public ledger, another potential application of blockchain is the development of blockchain-based disaster recovery center.

The idea is similar to what has already been discussed—storing registry records as hashes on the bitcoin blockchain. The main drawback of this idea is that there may simply not be enough memory to transfer these records to the blockchain. This could improve as the technology develops and the blockchain becomes more nimble to deal with big data.

If this could be achieved, blockchain could change the landscape in terms of disaster preparedness as well as helping with post-conflict restitution and compensation as tamper-proof, time-stamped ownership records will be available through the blockchain ledger. Decentralized storage systems combine hashing of documents and redundancy of storing encrypted records in more than one place. These features solve some of the problems typically found when storing records on a centralized server.

Land administration records if stored or backed up on a decentralized storage system are protected against fraud, and allow for disaster recovery. Open source protocols, such as those integral for the cryptocurrency and blockchain applications, are usually developed under the guidance of non-profit foundations for governance and fund management purposes.

Many of these foundations then spawn for profit companies to take on enterprise customers. Ultimately government buy in is crucial for these systems to be implemented, particularly in emerging economies. Factom Foundation is a non profit organization which supports the open source development of the Factom Protocol; a scalable data layer for the blockchain. This is a similar model to the Mozilla Foundation which promotes the web as a public resource, while wholly owned subsidiary Mozilla Corporation,manages the open source development of many of Mozilla products.

More can be found on Factom. The Omni Foundation is a non profit organization originally Mastercoin which was created in the Fall of to manage the funds and the software development of the Omni layer. The open source technology we have published is a protocol for an asset layer over the Bitcoin blockchain, which includes as soon to be activated decentralized exchange. Bitland is a non-profit organization that is working to keep the land registration process accessible, transparent, and free from government corruption.

They plan to streamline and automate the entire land registration process so it provides a better system of record that digitizes land titles and keeps the databases on a distributed system with multiple fail-safes. As the company works to update paper data storage of land into digital format, it also consolidates new land registry requests against the old registries.

In many cases, the official documents are outdated, and the locals have their own systems for keeping track of titles. In order to get a single registry that represents a consistent ledger of land title holdings, all of these problems must be solved, and in the process the integrity of the central registry must be kept.

With the consent of the Ghana Land Commission, the organization is currently in the process raising funds to start a road show visiting all ten regions of Ghana to educate communities about Bitland land title documentations and take field exercises to record a thousand properties in each region in the Bitland database, digitally timestamped on the blockchain with an encrypted system that uses a combination of decentralized data storage and traditional server warehouses for back-ups, and includes GPS coordinates for each property.

Currently the organization is smaller than 50 employees including ambassadors, regional administrators, campus coordinators and community representatives of which everyone is working pro bono. Bitland is based in Kumasi, Ghana, and is looking to expand operations into other countries in the African continent within the next few years. In mid , news emerged that Factom and Epigraph were in talks with the Government of Honduras to pilot a land registry based on blockchain technology.

For months there was no further comment on this initiative and whether the right funding had been secured. As of now, it appears that the initiative has been halted. Factom Inc is the for profit subsidiary of the Factom Foundation, dedicated to serving enterprise customers who want to develop on the Factom protocol. Ubitquity LLC is focused on the development of a blockchain based system for the tracking of ownership of real estate titles in US markets.

They released a minimal viable product MVP on March 4th for financial institutions, insurers and county recorders.. Partial ownership, of tokens for liens and multisignature governance features can be implemented for added security.

Prosoft Alliance is a company focused on the provision of efficient land administration through the use of innovative technology, combined with advisory services by land information professionals with global experience. ProSoft Alliance has developed an open source, workflow and rule based land administration software product, InnoLA. Recognizing the potential interest by partners and clients in blockchain technology to further ensure tenure security, ProSoft has worked to integrate blockchain via the Factom data layer into the InnoLA software.

Working with Factom, ProSoft developed a proof of concept workflow which enhances the functional task of verifying and committing data such as the recording of a deed. Upon successful submission to Factom, the entire transaction becomes read only and can no longer be edited. Depending on the result, a positive or negative message will be displayed, the Factom Explorer page is opened and automatically navigates to the specific entry related to the transaction. For this reason, the blockchain has several applications for land administration.

Some of the applications discussed in the paper include smart property colored coins , title deed registration, virtual notary, multiparty transactions, and disaster preparedness. The paper also notes that some of the applications might be more relevant for mature economies as compared to emerging economies. Furthermore, the paper notes that many of the potential benefits of utilizing the blockchain assume that a base layer of land information titles, deeds, survey plans exist and that the data is accurate — an assumption that is not valid in most emerging economies.

The paper also gives an overview of the various players involved in developing land administration applications of the blockchain. Given that blockchain is a relatively new technology, there is a fair amount of excitement in the field as various applications and business models are tried. Three major constraints that have been identified. First, while the proof of concept has been established it exists on a small stage. The major challenge will be to see whether or not blockchain based land transactions are in fact scaleable and if yes, does a viable business model exist to support such a venture.

Second, part of the scale problem lies in getting government buy-in. Even Factom, which has been leading this space, has acknowledged that it is not easy to get governments excited about new technology which has not been tested widely. Third, funding constraints exist around the development of blockchain for land administration. As of now there seem to be two major options. One is for developers and companies to turn to crowdfunding.

The second is for donors to take a greater interest in this technology and see if it could help tackle several developing world challenges linked to property rights and corruption. It appears that the blockchain could be the silver bullet that tackles both these issues. But much remains to be seen. A scalable data layer for the blockchain.

Mastering Bitcoin. Benet, J. Block size limit controversy. Explainer Smart Contracts. Smart Property. Irvine, D. Maidsafe Whitepaper. Mizrah, A. A blockchain-based property ownership recording system. Multi-Signature Accounts for Corporate Governance.

Mougayar, W. Snow, P. A Formal Language for Analyzing Contracts. Wilkinson, S. A peer-to-peer cloud storage network implementing end-to-end encryption would allow users to transfer and share data without reliance on a third party data provider.

The removal of central controls would eliminate most traditional data failures and outages, as well as significantly increasing security, privacy, and data control. A peer-to-peer network and basic encryption serve as a solution for most problems, but we must offer proper incentivisation for users to properly participate in this network. We propose a solution to these additional problems by using a challenge algorithm.

In this way we can periodically cryptographically check the integrity and availability of a file, and offer direct rewards to those maintaining the file. In absence of a peer-to-peer network the described methods may be used to allow users to control, migrate, validate their data on 3rd party data providers without the provider having direct access to the data. In other words, IPFS provides a high throughput content-addressed block storage model, with contentaddressed hyper links.

This forms a generalized Merkle DAG, a data structure upon which one can build versioned file systems, blockchains, and even a Permanent Web. IPFS combines a distributed hashtable, an incentivized block exchange, and a self-certifying namespace. IPFS has no single point of failure, and nodes do not need to trust each other. FileCoin Filecoin is a distributed electronic currency similar to Bitcoin.

The currency is awarded for storing files, and is transferred in transactions, as in Bitcoin. Files are added to the network by spending currency. This produces strong monetary incentives for individuals to join and work for the network. In the course of ordinary operation of the Filecoin network, nodes contribute useful work in the form of storage and distribution of valuable data.

This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful. Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings.

If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. What is Blockchain? What are the Land Administration Challenges? Limitations to Blockchain Detractors of blockchain technology will quickly point out that land administration challenges are largely not a technical problem, but instead an overall governance issue.

Blockchain: An Overview Simply put, the blockchain is an economic layer for the internet. Keys, Tokens, and Transactions One of the most important parts of a blockchain system is the keys of ownership and the ability to transact the units of account or digital tokens to other users. Multisignature Transactions In the transactions discussed prior only one key was required for digital tokens to be transferred to another address.

Decentralized Consensus Recordkeeping whether it be on monetary transactions, stock markets, voting records, or land ownership has always been a centralized process. Colored Coins Colored coins are a a layer developed on top of the bitcoin blockchain. Hashing for Document Integrity Information can be embedded into the blockchain transactions allowing for more than just transactional data to be referenced in the future.

Decentralized File Storage Systems With the advent of decentralized consensus on a history of transactions, file systems have been proposed and are being built aiming to provide decentralized file storage systems. Encryption and Distribution The different decentralized file systems have security features inherent in each of them.

Proof of Integrity Continual auditing in these systems provides proof of file integrity. Incentives Via Digital Tokens In order to incentivize companies and individuals to join the network and offer resources digital tokens are used. Smart Contracts Smart contracts were originally discussed by Nick Szabo in a small white paper written in Blockchain Technologies Appropriate for Land Administration.

Hashing for Document Integrity The recording of land rights into digital systemsis not yet ubiquitous throughout most of the world. Virtual notary A notary is a person authorized to perform specific legal functions, generally to guarantee and certify documents, transaction and contracts. Disaster Preparedness Due to its ability to store tamper-proof records on the public ledger, another potential application of blockchain is the development of blockchain-based disaster recovery center.

Decentralized Storage and File Management Decentralized storage systems combine hashing of documents and redundancy of storing encrypted records in more than one place. Non Profit. Factom Foundation Factom Foundation is a non profit organization which supports the open source development of the Factom Protocol; a scalable data layer for the blockchain.

Omni Layer Foundation The Omni Foundation is a non profit organization originally Mastercoin which was created in the Fall of to manage the funds and the software development of the Omni layer. Bitland Ghana Bitland is a non-profit organization that is working to keep the land registration process accessible, transparent, and free from government corruption.

Honduras In mid , news emerged that Factom and Epigraph were in talks with the Government of Honduras to pilot a land registry based on blockchain technology. For Profit. Factom Inc. ProSoft Alliance Prosoft Alliance is a company focused on the provision of efficient land administration through the use of innovative technology, combined with advisory services by land information professionals with global experience.

Nir Hirshman of the Israeli Bitcoin Association IBA told CoinDesk there are nearly 50 blockchain startups in Israel, although few target the local market because of a conservative regulatory climate. The industry remains largely unbanked , for example. Being unbanked is something many Palestinians grapple with as well, including East Jerusalemite Rami Mohammad Ali, a bitcoin miner and trader. Ali spent his blockchain week traipsing across Tel Aviv to buy bitcoin and bring it back to his Palestinian customers.

Nine Palestinians from Ramallah attended Ethereal Tel Aviv, a rare occurrence that required sponsorship from crypto startup Orbs for obtaining the necessary government permits for crossing into Israel. One such attendee was Hiba Shabin of the Ramallah-based software company Jaffa Net, which has already worked on an ethereum pilot project for certificate sharing among educational institutions and businesses.

Blockchain technology can truly forge economic ties across borders. But of course, the education-focused nonprofit Tel Aviv Bitcoin Embassy attracted far fewer visitors this week than rooftop parties with venture capitalists. On the other hand, restrictive banking norms may be part of the reason decentralized finance DeFi apps like loans are booming.

The Brooklyn-based venture studio ConsenSys announced at Ethereal the launch of its Codefi product suite for enterprises, especially the financial sector. Could the DeFi movement span the gap between the unbanked and the banks themselves? That appears to be the common belief. Now here I am again, in the Holy Land, nursing the foolish dream of another mystical purpose.

The Bitcoin Core developers that gathered at Scaling Bitcoin in Tel Aviv University have collaboratively built an asset already used by thousands of people like Ali, the Palestinian bitcoin trader. The vast majority of current usage is basically gambling and wealth accumulation by people who already have full access to banks.

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Bulgaria is currently sitting on one of the biggest stashes of Bitcoin in the world. How did the European nation come into the possession of this enormous sum of money? BitFinex , a crypto exchange, has one of the largest bitcoin wallets with , The FBI is one of the largest renowned holders of Bitcoin. Even thought the FBI sold a large amount of their Bitcoin holdings or even all, the FBI worth mentioned as they had a fortune in Bitcoin at some point.

A large portion of the Bitcoins seized and sold went to Barry Silbert. Tyler Winklevoss and Cameron Winklevoss were among the first Bitcoin billionaires. The twins allegedly own around 1 percent of all Bitcoin in circulation. Silbert is a venture capitalist and founder of Digital Currency Group. Marshals Service in Charlie Shrem is no doubt one of the most controversial Bitcoin millionaires.

At the moment, there are ,00 Bitcoin addresses that have 10 or more BTC. Surprisingly, these addresses that account for just 0. Only four addresses have more than , coins, which is in general not common. If exchanges want to hold funds, they generally have different wallets to do so rather than one. These might be extremely large whales that prefer to have their funds in just single wallets. The top 5 dormant addresses holding BTC for more than 5 years account for 1.

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